The theoretical framework is like the framework of a house that is essential in supporting the building see picture. The pillars, beams and foundation combine to support the house. Similarly, the different theories or models combine to form the underlying foundation of your study, combine to explain the phenomenon being studied, combine to justify why the study should be conducted and what is does not explain. The theoretical framework is also like the electricity in a house which must flow thorough all rooms in the house. Without doubt, there are hundreds or perhaps thousands of articles, thesis, dissertations, reports and books in the area you are planning to study.
Obviously, you are not expected to read all of them. Hence, you have to limit the scope of sources you need to read and yet have a good overview of the area of study. Also, you do not have much 'space' to report all the works. You have to decide which among the abundant works you should include in this section of Chapter 2.
Perhaps the following guidelines will help:. FOURTH - earlier you critically evaluated the articles individually and in isolation - now that you have grouped several articles in one category, you should compare the studies within a category focusing on similar and conflicting findings. For example, under the category of 'Democratic Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction' some studies showed that democratic leadership styles resulted in greater job satisfaction among staff while in other studies there was no relationship.
Introduction to the Special Issue on Job Satisfaction in Fisheries in the Global South
Now you have a 'big picture' of the studies reviwed:. The following are some tips for organisation of your review:. Keeping your own voice - Even though you are presenting the views of others, you should maintain your own voice by starting and ending a paragraph with your own words. In this section, you provide closure for your review with a conclusion of some kind.
Oftentimes, in the behavioural and social sciences research findings tend to be inconclusive. Discuss how you resolve conflicts among seemingly contradictory research findings. Conclude by telling how the theoretical framework and the review leads to the problem statement and the research questions that will be addressed. Place your study in the context of the literature you have reviewed. As mentioned earlier, in Chapter 2, you write about the theoretical framework underlying your study and review literature that is related to your study.
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Referring to Sources. Academic Phrasebank by Dr. John Morley, The University of Manchester.
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PREAMBLE Stating the sub-heading 'Preamble' or 'Introduction' is optional but it should include the following: Briefly discuss the problem statement, purpose of the study, the research questions, the research design and data collection techniques to provide an appropriate context for the review. Theoretical Framework by Dr.
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These studies found higher scores for the relationship between satisfaction with colleagues and organizational commitment than that between satisfaction with pay and commitment. H4: The dimensions of satisfaction investigated in this study positively affect organizational commitment. Satisfaction with interpersonal relationships has greater impact on commitment than satisfaction with rewards. Riketta and Van Dick argue that, despite the number of studies concerned with the logical order of the relationship between commitment and satisfaction, the results are still inconsistent.
Thus there is no consensus in the literature about the order of this relationship. In this study, we assume that, although there are significant relationships between the variables investigated and commitment, these relationships are facilitated by satisfaction variables, which clarifies their mediation role.
This leads to the last two hypotheses of this study:.
H5: The model that considers satisfaction as antecedent presents better fit than the model that considers satisfaction as consequent. H6: The impact of antecedents on commitment is reduced when satisfaction is included, indicating the latter assumes a mediating role in the relationship between commitment and its antecedents. To carry out this study, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed; the former aiming to assess the relationships between the variables measured, and the latter serving to contextualize and aid comprehension of the results found.
In this study, the context being investigated is quite specific. We observe that at this institution, after nearly years of existence, the organization's role has changed. Despite this central change, it has longstanding cultural characteristics, such as the values of tradition, hierarchy, and discipline. Monjardet argued that the military institution is quite similar to the classical organization called scientific management, with a well-defined chain of command and top-down decision-making. The specific nature of the military police explains the qualitative step in this study.
Although this step is not directly linked to our central goal, it helps toward understanding the impact context has on the results.
Job Satisfaction, A Literature Review
The qualitative analysis served to contextualize and aid comprehension of the results found, through interviews, a focus group, observations and questionnaires. It was subdivided into two parts: the period before quantitative data collection, in which six in-depth interviews were carried out to understand the context prior to preparation of the questionnaire; and the period afterwards, in which the focus group technique was adopted to facilitate understanding of the results.
Oliveira and Freitas characterize it as a data collection technique that, when used concomitantly with other methods, can help clarify the results obtained and explain the phenomenon behind such results. Morgan considers it to be an intermediate technique between participatory observation and the open interview, without the replacement of one technique by the other.
The focus group makes explicit use of group interaction, with respect to a theme, in a limited time period. In this group, the goal is to elicit the plurality of ideas, which enables the researcher to broaden the understanding of the answers obtained.
Therefore, the interviews and the focus group were aimed at revealing the culture that permeates the social fabric of this corporation, in order to better understand the map of relationships established between commitment and the remaining variables. Thus, organizational culture serves as a background for interpreting quantitative results.
The participants interviewed were five officers from the organization's high command and the head of the Human Resources Department. The interview time was used freely and without interruption, with an average duration of two hours and thirty minutes. The focus group was comprised of 7 members from the highest levels: general command, internal affairs bureau, board of directors, coordinators, and chief officers. Content analysis was the strategy chosen in this step, considered by Bardin as a set of techniques for analyzing the conversations held during the processes of data collection, and which uses systematic and objective procedures to describe the content of this communication.
The techniques comprising this set are based on categorical analysis, which considers the totality of each message communicated and rates it according to the presence or absence of the significant and constitutive elements of the message. In this study, we limit the presentation of qualitative data to the categories related to the results of the quantitative analyses. The questionnaire was composed of structured questions that were evaluated on a seven-point Likert scale ranging from fully disagree to fully agree. A description of the measures used and the main information derived from the psychometric analyses conducted to assess the quality of scales are shown next.
All the confirmatory analyses presented satisfactory adjustments, loading factors between 0. Hair et al. The theoretical relevance of the items and the sample size supported the maintenance of the items. Organizational commitment : the study used six items extracted from the scale by Mowday, Porter and Steers , among them "I feel happy for having chosen to work for this organization, as compared to other organizations that I considered at the time of my hiring". The alpha coefficient estimate of reliability was 0. Examples of these items are: "I am satisfied with thelevel of respect andfairness that Ireceive from mydirect superior", "I amsatisfied with the people with whom I have relationships and contact at work" and "I am satisfied with the pay and benefits I receive".
Job characteristics : items adapted from scales validated by Rizzo, House and Lirtzman and Sims, Szilagyi and Keller were used; these items were tested in the Brazilian context by Bastos , in addition to the items constructed by Chang Creativity in the work context : aims to assess how encouraging and receptive the organization is toward new ideas, as well as how much it tolerates potential related errors. It comprises four items constructed by Chang , with a Cronbach's Alpha of.
This study used three items constructed by Bastos , with internal consistency reliability of 0. As data collection strategies, this study used a questionnaire available on their intranet, for professionals in the capital, and print questionnaires for professionals in outlying areas of the state, in order to assure access in all regions. The majority of the sample is composed of professionals who are male With respect to occupational variables, most of the participants belong to the police officer category It also adopted the strategy of competitive models, in order to compare two possible models of relationships between the study variables, and identify the model that provided the best solution.
The study adopted four categories of adjustment indices proposed by Ullman : a comparative fit indices NFI, CFI, RMSEA , which attempt to compare the estimated model with alternative models, situating it in a continuum that begins in a perfectly justified model all variables correlated and ends in a null model all variables are uncorrelated ; b indices of proportion of variance explained GFI, AGFI , which consider the amount of variance of the sample matrix explained by the population's estimated matrix; c parsimonious model indices PGFI, AIC , which indicate what model is the best in a set of competitive models, based on the number of estimated parameters and the number of non-redundant correlations from the data matrix; d root mean residual indices RMR , which evaluate the amplitude between the model estimated parameters and the data observed in the sample correlation matrix.
In the present study, we performed cross-validation of all the models tested. For this task, the database was divided into four independent subsamples. The first two, both with 2, cases, were used for validation of measurement models: after testing with the first subsample, evaluation of modification indices and addition of new parameters, the modified models were tested with the second subsample. The third subsample, with 4, cases, was used to test structural models, and the last subsample, with 2, cases, served for cross-validation of these models.
Table 1 presents the indices of adjustment of measurement models for each latent variable. After the test with the first sample, we added parameters considering the modification indices and the pertinent theory. Then, the modified models were validated with an independent second sample. Realistic initial expectations is an identified model.
Hence, it was not tested. There were no changes to the job characteristics model. Source: Research data. Table 2 presents the descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation among the constructs included in the models. Moderate and significant correlations among the study variables are observed. Given the significant correlations between the variables, parameters between antecedents were included in the specification of the structural models.
Each model was tested twice: first, with the third subsample and then with the fourth subsample, to validate the model fit. When comparing nested models, parsimony indices are particularly important. The PGFI is the same for the two models.